The purpose of qualified retirement plans and Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) is to provide a tax incentive for people to save for retirement. No matter the type of plan, they provide the ability to place money into the account before taxes (pre-tax) and the money then also grows without current taxation. Most plans require an annual required minimum distribution (RMD) after age 70½. These withdrawals are taxed as is other income, at rates that can reach 35% and are also subject to income tax in most states. Let's take a closer look at the requirement and mechanics or you to comply with these rules.
Individual retirement plans comprise IRAs and R0th IRAs. IRAs require an IRA minimum distribution after age 70 1/2 while Roth IRAs do not. Employer sponsored plans include the 401(k), Roth 401(k), 403(b) and pension plans. Note that both the Roth IRA and Roth 401k, unlike other types of plans that are funded with pre-tax money, are funded with post-tax contributions, and as a consequence are exempt from tax on withdrawals. Look at the table provided below.
The IRA Minimum Distribution rules state that RMDs needs to be set in motion at the age of 70½. However, if you're still employed and a par6ticipant in the company qualified plan and you do not own more than 5% of the company, you can delay making RMDs until you retire. However, you must still make an IRA required minimum distribution from your own IRA. Note that your IRA minimum distribution is based on the total of all IRAs should you have more than none account. Similarly, if you have worked for several employers, your various 401k account are summed in calculation your RMD. In other words, if you have 4 IRA accounts, you may sum the balances and take your IRA minimum distribution from just one IRA account. You are not allowed to combine the sums of different types of accounts (e.g. 401ks and IRAs).
The first IRA required minimum distribution must begin by April 1st following the year you turn 70½. However, by December 31 of the same year, you must make your 2nd IRA minimum distribution. This makes for two IRA RMDs within one year which may increase the tax rate applied to them because your total income is increased which may cause a higher tax rate. It is advised to commence your first IRA minimum distribution before December 31 of the year when your age becomes 70½ and then go for 2nd IRA RMD by December 31 of the following year, there by avoiding two distributions n the same years so as to minimize your tax bracket.
The IRA Minimum Distribution that the account holder withdraws is the sum of all the IRA accounts (excluding Roth IRAs for they are two separate things) on December 31 of the previous year to the year you make that IRA RMD – distributed on the basis of your life expectancy (defined by IRS publication 590 Appendix C). See Table III in Appendix C for this, or consult Table II if your life partner is younger than you by more than 10 years. Table I is for those who are inheritors of the actual owner of an IRA .
Go through Table III and locate your age column and read the parallel (remaining) life expectancy. Divide this li9fe expectancy figure into your IRA balances form December 31 of the prior year and that is the amount you need to take as an IRA minimum, distribution. Do the same experience for each type of retirement plan you have (except for Roth IRAs which do not require a distribution by the owner during his lifetime). Surprisingly, the Roth 401(k) DOES have a RMD although it is tax free. You will highly benefit if you switch your Roth 401k into a Roth IRA and avoid having to make an RMD.
Required Minimum Distribution for Owner(not beneficiary)
| Qualified Plan
|Tax Status||RMDs begin|
|IRA||Tax-deferred||After turn 70½ By IRA rules|
|Roth IRA||Tax-free||No RMDs|
Note: Delay RMDs if still working for company with plan,
|403(b)||Tax-deferred||After turn 70½|
|401(k)||Tax-deferred||After turn 70½|
|Roth 401(k)||Tax-free||After turn 70½ (tax-free RMDs)|
Lose a Fortune on Your 401k Rollover
If you do not do any of these correctly:
- Opt for a distribution rather than direct transfer
- Rollover company stock to an IRA
- Choose to rollover to a Roth IRA
- Rollover to your new employer’s 401k
- Rollover post-tax contributions